Disability is any medical condition that makes it more difficult for a person to do certain activities or effectively interact with the world around them (socially or materially).
These conditions, or impairments, may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or a combination of multiple factors.
Disability is common, about 1 in 50 children has a disability. There are many types of disability, including disabilities that children are born with, disabilities that develop after birth and disabilities that are caused by injury. Children with disabilities requires special attention.
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Types of Disabilities In Children
This is a serious developmental disorder that impairs the ability to communicate and interact.
2. Cerebral Palsy
This is a congenital disorder of movement, muscle tone or posture.
3. Chromosome abnormalities such as trisomies
Trisomy is a genetic disorder in which a person has three copies of a chromosome instead of two.
4. Down Syndrome
This is a genetic chromosome 21 disorder causing developmental and intellectual delays.
5. Fragile X syndrome
This is a genetic condition causing intellectual disability
6. Genetic Disorders
This is an inherited medical condition caused by a DNA abnormality.
7. Spina Bifida
This is a birth defect in which a developing baby’s spinal cord fails to develop properly.
8. Tourette Syndrome
This is a nervous system disorder involving repetitive movements or unwanted sounds.
9. Velocardiofacial Syndrome
This is a disorder caused by a defect in chromosome 22
10. Visual Impairment
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means.
11. Hearing Impairment
This is a total or significant loss of hearing.
12. Mental Retardation and Mental Illness
This is a wide range of conditions that affect mood, thinking and behaviour.
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Common Causes Of Disabilities
- Communicable Diseases
Also known as Infectious diseases such as lymphatic filariasis, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and other blood transmitted diseases.
Neurological consequences of some diseases such as encephalitis, meningitis, and childhood cluster diseases (such as measles, mumps, and poliomyelitis) contribute to disability.
- Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs)
Chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, arthritis and cancer cause the majority of long-term disabilities.
Lifestyle choices and personal behavior such as obesity, physical inactivity, drugs that lead to non communicable diseases are also becoming major contributing factors.
Air pollution, occupational disease, poor water supply, sanitation, personal and domestic hygiene, malnutrition also contribute for disability in children.
Injuries due to road traffic accidents, violence, conflicts and falls have long been recognized as contributors to disability.
Mental health retardation and mental illness are the causes of mental disability. In more than 50% cases mental retardation has been reported to be caused by serious illness or head injury in the childhood and birth defects. Mental retardation was observed mostly at birth or at very early ages of life while the problem of mental illness is more of an old age problem.
Hearing impairment may be caused by a congenital defect, injury, disease, certain medication, exposure to loud noise or age-related wear and tear.
Cerebral palsy may be caused by asphyxia neonatorum, or a lack of oxygen to the brain during labor and delivery.
Genetic disorders can be caused by a mutation in one gene (monogenic disorder), by mutations in multiple genes (multifactorial inheritance disorder), by a combination of gene mutations and environmental factors, or by damage to chromosomes (changes in the number or structure of entire chromosomes).
This page reveals some common disabilities in children and their causes. If you know the cause of a disability, then it can be prevented.
We should pay attention to our children and pregnant women should pay close attention to their bodies.
I hope you find this information useful. Feel free to share with your family and friends.